Hong Kong retient son souffle

Les résidents de Hong Kong avaient la réputation d'être " apolitiques ". Mais ce n'est plus le cas. Depuis qu'ils ont manifesté en masse à l'occasion de l'anniversaire de la rétrocession à la Chine en 2003, des centaines de milliers de citoyens de Hong Kong sont descendus à plusieurs reprises dans la rue, pour protester dans le calme contre des décisions du gouvernement et demander des réformes politiques.

Pourtant, le gouvernement chinois s'accroche à l'idée que la population de Hong Kong n'est pas mûre pour la démocratie. En avril 2004, l'Assemblée populaire chinoise a exclu le suffrage universel à Hong Kong pour l'élection du Chef de l'exécutif en 2007, et celle du Conseil législatif en 2008. Certes, en vertu de la Basic Law (loi fondamentale, la constitution spéciale de Hong Kong) ces scrutins pourraient permettre pour la première fois au Territoire de choisir ses représentants selon le principe " une personne, une voix ", mais la Chine craint que des réformes d'une telle ampleur ne compromettent la stabilité politique et le développement économique.

Pour le moment, tous les yeux de Chine sont tournés vers les élections législatives du 12 septembre prochain, qui indiqueront au gouvernement de Hong Kong et aux dirigeants chinois ce que la population pense du rythme et de l'orientation des réformes. Une forte participation est attendue à l'appui des candidats démocrates, ce qui ne leur garantira pas la majorité au Conseil législatif, en raison de l'organisation politique particulière de Hong Kong. Ainsi, pour le scrutin de ce mois-ci, 3,2 millions d'électeurs inscrits n'éliront que 30 représentants sur 60.

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