Jak přivést charitativní organizace k zodpovědnosti

Předpokládejme, že vás trápí problém afrických dětí umírajících na choroby, kterým lze zabránit. Chcete věnovat peníze dobročinné organizaci, jež pracuje na snížení počtu obětí. Takovou činnost však vyvíjí mnoho organizací. Podle čeho si vyberete?

První otázka, kterou si řada lidí v souvislosti s dobročinnými organizacemi klade, zní: „Jak velká část mého daru padne na administrativu?“ Ve Spojených státech je tento údaj snadno dostupný na webové stránce Charity Navigator, která má pět milionů uživatelů. Informace se však čerpají z formulářů, které vyplňují samy dobročinné organizace a zasílají je daňovým úřadům. Formuláře nikdo nekontroluje a podíl prostředků vyčleněných na administrativu a programové výdaje lze pomocí špetky kreativního účetnictví snadno zmanipulovat.

Ještě horší je, že i kdyby byl tento údaj přesný, stále nic nevypovídá o vlivu charitativních organizací. Tlak na snižování administrativních výdajů může snížit jejich efektivitu. Pokud například charita usilující o odstraňování chudoby v Africe sníží počet svých pracovníků s odbornými znalostmi, zvýší tím pravděpodobnost, že nakonec bude financovat neúspěšné projekty. Dokonce se ani nemusí dozvědět, které z jejích projektů ztroskotaly, poněvadž jejich vyhodnocování a vyvozování závěrů z chyb vyžaduje zaměstnance – a ti zvyšují administrativní náklady.

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