Frenar el nacionalismo económico de Europa

PARÍS – Los gobiernos de Francia y Alemania han estado luchando para salvar sus industrias automovilísticas mediante grandes inyecciones fiscales, con lo que han revelado con claridad que en gran parte de la Unión Europea ha vuelto con fuerza la política industrial, pero, a lo largo de todo el año pasado, los dirigentes franceses, alemanes y de otros países europeos rivalizaron –en lugar de cooperar– mutuamente al aplicar sus políticas. A consecuencia de ello, algunas industrias europeas recibieron una protección indebida, mientras que otras resultaron expulsadas del mercado.

La enseñanza que de ello se desprende está clara: los gobiernos europeos deben cooperar al aplicar la política industrial, pero también deben hacer mucho más para fomentar la innovación y la competitividad.

Los gobiernos francés y alemán intervinieron el año pasado con inyecciones de capital para substituir a los accionistas que habían desertado. Fortalecieron una demanda menguante subvencionando las ventas, estimulando la investigación sobre tecnologías más limpias y protegiendo puestos de trabajo. Esos planes de recuperación ponían por delante los intereses nacionales con el argumento de que se debía utilizar el dinero de los contribuyentes para defender a las empresas y a los trabajadores de la nación.

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