Crímenes y castigos de la historia

BUENOS AIRES: ¿Cuál es el precio de la justicia? La manera en la que los países abordan las violaciones históricas de los derechos humanos es asunto cotidiano de política en América Latina, Europa Oriental y Africa. Miremos a Rwanda. Miremos a Chile, donde el General Pinochet finalmente podría enfrentarse a un juicio. Miremos a Polonia, donde al Presidente Kwasniewski y al ex-presidente Walesa casi se les prohibió participar en las próximas elecciones de octubre debido a sus supuestos vínculos con la policía secreta de la era comunista.

En todas partes, la gente se asombra por el hecho de que las terribles violaciones sistemáticas a los derechos humanos son tratadas en forma diferente en países distintos. Aunque sin duda existen diferencias, los principios éticos a los que tendrían que sujetarse las violaciones a los derechos humanos durante los procesos de reconstrucción democrática deben ser los mismos.

Chile y Polonia no son los únicos que tienen que confrontar el peso de la historia. Construir una democracia sobre la base de culturas políticas y hábitos cívicos plagados por la violencia de Estado no es tarea fácil. Las dificultades se multiplican cuando el intento se hace en momentos de crisis económica. Yo vengo de un país donde las violaciones a los derechos humanos se castigaron con rigor. No obstante, entiendo el impulso de limitar el castigo con el fin de que la sociedad sane y se recupere. El castigo a los crímenes sistémáticos, históricos en contra de los derechos humanos sólo se justifica moralmente si está diseñado para proteger a la sociedad de males mayores en el futuro.

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