Anadolu Agency/Jakarta

لمحة تاريخية من (انعدام) المساواة

بيركلي ــ مؤخرا، ألقى باري آيكنجرين، الخبير الاقتصادي من بيركلي كلمة في لشبونة حول التفاوت وعدم المساواة، عَرَض فيها واحدة من فضائل أن يكون المرء باحثا في التاريخ الاقتصادي. الواقع أن آيكنجرين يهتم مثلي بتعقيدات كل موقف، ويتجنب الإفراط في التبسيط في ملاحقة الوضوح المفاهيمي. وتدعم هذه النزعة الدافع إلى محاولة شرح المزيد عن العالَم بما يتجاوز ما قد يكون بوسعنا التعرف عليه بالاستعانة بنموذج واحد بسيط.

من جانبه، وفي ما يتعلق بعدم المساواة، حَدَّد آيكنجرين ست عمليات مجردة كانت عاملة على مدار السنوات المائتين والخمسين المنصرمة.

تتمثل العملية الأولى في اتساع نطاق توزيع الدخل في بريطانيا في الفترة من 1750 إلى 1850، مع ذهاب المكاسب من الثورة الصناعية البريطانية إلى الطبقة المتوسطة الحضرية والريفية، ولكن ليس إلى فقراء الحضر والريف.

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