Margaret Scott

Historia, usada y abusada

LONDRES – En su brillante libro "Los usos y abusos de la historia", la historiadora Margaret Macmillan cuenta un relato sobre dos norteamericanos que discuten las atrocidades del 11 de septiembre de 2001. Uno hace una analogía con Pearl Harbor, el ataque de Japón a Estados Unidos en 1941. Su amigo no tiene idea de a qué se refiere. "Ya sabes", responde el primer hombre. "Fue cuando los vietnamitas bombardearon la flota estadounidense y se inició la Guerra de Vietnam".

La memoria histórica no siempre es así de mala. Pero la política y la diplomacia internacional están plagadas de ejemplos de antecedentes malos y nada recomendables que se utilizan para justificar decisiones de política exterior, que invariablemente derivan en una catástrofe.

Munich -el encuentro de 1938 entre Adolf Hitler, Édouard Daladier, Neville Chamberlain y Benito Mussolini- es un testigo frecuente convocado ante la corte por los políticos que intentan defender la causa de las aventuras en el exterior. Siempre se habló de la desastrosa invasión británica de Egipto en 1956 como si Gamal Nasser fuera un retroceso a los dictadores fascistas de los años 1930. Si lo fueran a apaciguar como los habían apaciguado a ellos, los resultados serían catastróficos en Oriente Medio.

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