Margaret Scott

被利用和滥用的历史

发自伦敦——在历史学家玛格列特·麦克米兰才华横溢的著作《被滥用和利用的历史》一书中,讲述了一个关于两个美国人讨论“9·11”事件暴行的故事:当其中一人用1941年珍珠港事件来比喻“9·11”的时候,他的同伴却对珍珠港事件一无所知,于是前者就解释说:“你知道么,这就跟越南人轰炸美国舰队并挑起越战一样。”

虽然对历史的记忆并不总是像上面这个小故事那样颠倒黑白。不过国际政治和外交场上却充斥着许多错误和被误解的历史案例,人们用这些例子来评价自己的外交政策决策,而这种行为也总能为此后的巨大灾难埋下伏笔。

比如阿道夫·希特勒、法国总理达拉第,英国首相张伯伦和墨索里尼于1938年共同策划的“慕尼黑阴谋”就经常被政治家引用来讨论海外用兵的问题。而在1956年令英国人损失惨重的入侵埃及事件中,埃及领导人伽马尔·纳赛尔就被说成是一个1930年代式的法西斯独裁者,如果像当年对待希特勒那样对纳赛尔执行绥靖政策的话,那么对整个中东地区都将是一场灾难。

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