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对十九世纪自由主义者及其追随者来说,因为市场是竞争性的,所以个体的回报与他们的社会贡献——用经济学家的话说,就是“边际产品”——有关。资本家因为储蓄而不是消费而获得回报——用我的牛津大学德鲁蒙德(Drummond)政治经济学讲席教授前辈拿骚·西尼尔(Nassau Senior)的话说,是因为他们的节制(abstinence)。因此,收入差异被归因于个人所拥有的“资产”——人力和金融资本。因此,不平等性学者将焦点集中在资产的分配上,包括它们如何在代际间传递。


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  1. op_anheier8_MichaelOrsoGettyImages_Atlasstatueinnewyork Michael Orso/Getty Images

    Philanthropy vs. Democracy

    Helmut K. Anheier

    For philanthropic institutions, the fundamental question of accountability first raised by the emergence of liberal democracy will not go away. To what extent should modern societies permit independent private agendas in the public realm and allow their advocates to pursue objectives that are not shared by governments and popular majorities?

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