Redynamiser l’économie de l’Égypte

NEWPORT BEACH – Quelque deux ans après la profonde révolution égyptienne, l’économie du pays est en proie à une inquiétante spirale vers le bas. De plus en plus d’individus, d’Égypte comme d’ailleurs, commencent à reprocher à la révolution elle-même d’avoir fait dérailler une économie croissante qui permettait de réduire la charge de la dette extérieure et de maintenir un confortable volume de réserves de change.

Cette critique de la révolution constitue pourtant une approche erronée des difficultés économiques actuelles de l’Égypte, bien que la tentation du reproche soit compréhensible dans la mesure où la situation économique du pays s’est encore détériorée ces derniers mois. Croissance anémique, taux de chômage élevé, diminution dramatique du nombre de nouveaux investissements – autant d’aspects qui aggravent des conditions financières, sociales et politiques déjà difficiles. Il en résulte une menace de voir se combiner un certain nombre de cercles vicieux.

Les ruptures d’approvisionnement national alimentent désormais l’inflation, et exacerbent les difficultés liées à un budget national lourd en subventions. Ces ruptures ont également accentué la faiblesse des finances extérieures, contribuant à une forte réduction des réserves de change, qui n’a pu être contenue qu’au moyen de prêts et de dépôts exceptionnels issus de l’étranger.

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