Dean Rohrer

Le mythe de l'agriculture biologique

STANFORD – Les produits biologiques (la nourriture, les soins miracles pour la peau, sans oublier les cigarettes) sont très en vogue, et le marché mondial des aliments biologiques rapporterait à lui seul plus de 60 milliards de dollars par an. L'opinion des partisans de l'agriculture biologique semblent partagés par la Commission européenne, dont l'opinion officielle sur l'agriculture et les aliments biologiques est : « Bon pour la nature, bon pour vous. » Mais il n'existe aucune preuve convaincante de ces deux opinions.

Une méta-analyse de 2012 des données de 240 études a conclu que les fruits et légumes biologiques n'étaient en moyenne pas plus nutritifs que leurs homologues conventionnels moins chers, ni moins susceptibles d'être contaminés par des bactéries pathogènes comme E. coli ou les salmonelles : un constat qui a surpris même les chercheurs : « Quand nous avons commencé ce projet, a déclaré l'un des chercheurs Dena Bravata, nous avons pensé qu'il y aurait sans doute des conclusions qui corroboreraient la supériorité du bio par rapport aux aliments conventionnels. »

De nombreuses personnes achètent des aliments biologiques pour éviter l'exposition à des niveaux nocifs de pesticides. Mais c'est une mauvaise raison. Alors que les fruits et légumes non biologiques avaient plus de résidus de pesticides, les niveaux dans plus de 99% des cas ne dépassaient pas les seuils de sécurité établis par les organismes de réglementation.

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