Organic Farm Mark Davis/Flickr

有机农业的不可持续性

斯坦福—“可持续”已成为二十一世纪流行词之一。越来越多的大学开始开设关于“持续性”的课程甚至专业,许多大公司也以成立庞大的“可持续”相关部门为荣。4月,许多农业/食品行业的标志性跨国公司参加了由美国最大零售商——沃尔玛公司在其堪萨斯总部举行的“可持续产品博览会”(Sustainable Product Expo)。

但是,与许多感觉良好但模糊不清的概念一样,“可持续性”中包括了相当大的诡辩成分,比如,农业可持续性往往与有机农业挂钩,有机农业的支持者称之为用“可持续”方法养活迅速膨胀的世界人口。但“可持续”究竟是什么意思?它与“有机”食品生产方法有怎样的关系?

有机运动宣称其方法具有可持续性,这一点颇可质疑。比如,最新研究发现,如果根据作物在生长季的需要通过灌溉系统施用化肥,地下水的污染风险可以显著降低;而有机农业依靠堆肥,堆肥释放的东西并不与作物需求相配。此外,尽管堆肥被赞为“绿色”措施,但会产生大量温室气体(也通常是作物致病菌的来源)。

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