Arctic oil drilling Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

Запретить судовой мазут в Арктике

ЛОНДОН – Тридцать пять лет назад в рамках экспедиции вокруг земного шара Чарльз Бёртон и я пересекли Северный Ледовитый океан через Северный полюс, прожив три месяца в палатке на плавучей льдине. Это путешествие определило всю нашу жизнь и помогло установить мировой рекорд, который не побит до сих пор.

Но есть ещё один рекорд, который выглядит намного менее устойчивым. Он принадлежит собственно арктическим льдам: в марте этого года они сократились до минимального размера за всю историю наблюдений.

Исчезновение арктических льдов вызвано тем, что люди пользуются ископаемым топливом. Это приводит не только к глобальному потеплению. Широкое применение мазута в судоходстве оказывает прямое воздействие на таяние льдов. Мазут стоит дёшево, его много, но это топливо – токсичное и грязное. Корабли в Арктике загрязняют лёд и снег оксидами серы и так называемым «чёрным углеродом» (black carbon). Накопление этих загрязнителей ускоряет процесс таяния льдов, что ведёт к повышению температуры воды в океане. Тем самым, создаётся замкнутый порочный круг, усиливающий процессы таяния.

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