L’engagement de la Chine en matière climatique

BEIJING – Prenant un tournant que certains trouveront surprenant, la Chine – aujourd’hui le principal émetteur de dioxyde de carbone – est en train de devenir un chef de file mondial en matière de politique climatique. A vrai dire, les efforts entrepris par la Chine pour limiter la pollution et la destruction de l’environnement, tout en opérant une transition vers un modèle de croissance plus durable, pourraient fournir des leçons utiles pour d’autres pays dans le monde.

La première étape vers une croissance économique plus durable est de reconnaître, comme l’a fait le gouvernement chinois, que la pollution – essentiellement le fait des centrales thermiques au charbon – est terriblement destructrice pour les vies et les moyens de subsistance de ses citoyens, en particulier dans les grandes métropoles comme Beijing et Shanghai. Les émissions de gaz à effet de serre contribuent en outre au changement climatique, dont les effets, comme nous met en garde le Groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat (GIEC), pourraient se révéler dévastateurs pour tous les pays, y compris pour la Chine, qui est également très vulnérable.

La Chine est déjà le principal importateur mondial de pétrole et la demande énergétique continue à croître rapidement. La sécurité énergétique du pays se pose donc de façon cruciale aujourd’hui.

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