Harvey Weinstein and Georgina Chapman David Livingston/Getty Images

超级明星的性爱捕食心理

伦敦——哈维·韦恩斯坦的性攻击丑闻并没有表现出任何减弱的迹象。恰恰相反:英国警方针对涉及奥斯卡获奖电影制作人的若干项指控正在进行调查。尽管韦恩斯坦已“明确否认”非自愿性行为指控,且警方并未展开任何逮捕行动,但20多位女性——包括演员安吉丽娜·朱莉、格温尼斯·帕特洛和罗斯·麦高恩——都公开指控韦恩斯坦性骚扰。指控的涉案时间长达30年左右

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好莱坞拼命想要解释其最著名的人物之一为什么能在如此长的时间里进行这样的行为而不受惩罚。伍迪·艾伦提供了一条重要的线索。虽然与韦恩斯坦在几部影片上进行过合作,艾伦声称他从未收到过性骚扰指控。“他们不会那么做,因为你不感兴趣,”艾伦告诉英国广播公司记者。“你只对拍电影感兴趣。”其他曾与韦恩斯坦合作过的明星也发表了类似的言论。

这是否相当于好莱坞版的警官“静默蓝墙”,还是涉及到其他的临床因素?

近期的心理研究成果或许可以揭示可能的答案。美国和以色列的科学家认为,有某些人格特质——自恋、精神变态和马基维雅里主义的“暗黑三要素”——往往与性虐待行为相关。

这项有趣的研究成果发表在2016年的人格与个体差异杂志上,揭示了与骚扰倾向相关的人格特质可能是“专业心理适应”,某些个体藉此对社会“特定细分领域”进行利用。换言之,某些性捕猎者可能寻求从事特定行业,从而为其利用行为进行掩护。

研究人员还发现使某些人取得成功的特质可能恰恰是构成其利用倾向的个性特征。例如,获得奥斯卡奖所需的特质可能与追求大量性伴侣和几乎无需负太多责任性关系的特质是相似的。

进一步研究表明,如果在社会其他角落发现类似情况我们也不应感到惊讶。使某人成为明星的特质让他同时沦为性虐待者的情况并不仅仅局限在好莱坞。

早在韦恩斯坦指控曝光前很久就发布了“暗黑三要素”的研究成果,但迄今为止,这项成果依然是对性骚扰者个性特质的最全面的调查。来自美国奥克兰大学、佐治亚大学和以色列萨比尔学院的研究者对超过2,500名以色列男女展开了调查。容易利用人的人表现出冷酷、难以相处、善于欺骗、自我中心、诚实和谦卑缺失、以及过度关注个人才能和目标等若干特质。

最后这种特质——也被称为自恋——是暗黑三要素的关键组成。自恋者往往相信自己的伟大,并认为其他人应当在他们的陪伴下受宠若惊——即使这当中涉及到不受欢迎的性企图。

同时,马基维雅里主义者认为与其他人最佳的相处之道是对他们说想听的话。他们不自觉的操纵行为可能导致不断欺骗朋友和同事,而这一点或许可以解释为什么这种人格的人会进行性骚扰或追求短期性关系。他们认为自己聪明到不会被抓住。

当虐待行为被曝光时,他们往往试图转移指责。声称自己患有诸如“性成瘾”之类的疾病,或者就像媒体报道韦恩斯坦所做的那样进入某家康复诊所“接受治疗”,我认为他的所作所为与经典的马基雅维里反应完全相符。

如果最后证明指控有效,韦恩斯坦将成为“暗黑三要素”虐待者的极端例证。但这种人格特质组合并非如此罕见。事实上,强大的捕食者现在可能就藏在冷饮水箱之后。1994年对美国联邦员工所进行的调查(调查结果存在“暗黑三要素”研究中进行过引用)显示,44%的女性员工和19%的男性员工报告曾在近两年的工作中遭受过性骚扰。

同时,2016年研究的作者提醒我们性骚扰并不总是以性行为目标。相反,心理驱动力——包括提升自尊感、吸引力或男性气概的需求——可能是捕食者滥用权力主宰或侮辱他人的驱动因素。

无论最终结果如何,与韦恩斯坦案尤其相关的或许是好莱坞本身就是一种自恋的泡沫。心理学家可能认为这一特点解释了某些人面对同事所谓堕落行为时所表现出来的视而不见的态度。

鉴于所控罪行的严重性和为受害者带来的痛苦,性骚扰行为成为韦恩斯坦案的直接焦点是恰如其分的。但对那些想要理解成功和虐待行为之间显性关系的心理学家来说,韦恩斯坦显而易见的垮台仅仅是揭开了分析冰山的一角。

翻译:Xu Binbin

http://prosyn.org/XNqMWbg/zh;

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