新的不平等

普林斯顿——对大萧条的记忆和看法从一开始就影响了2008年金融危机的应对之策。传统智慧认为世界避免了两次大战间的灾难重演,而这主要因为决策者这次做出了更好的决策。虽然尽可以为此洋洋得意,但此次危机后复苏的两大特点令人们无心庆祝。

首先,尽管采取了史无前例的货币扩张及大规模财政刺激政策,经济复苏依然惊人地疲软和脆弱。欧元区债务危机引发了急剧的财政收缩和经济衰退。即使在衰退伊始就采取大规模经济刺激措施的美国,其长期经济增长在可以预见的未来似乎也远低于危机前的水平。

步履蹒跚的经济复苏令人回想起20世纪30年代,当时约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯及其在美国的主要支持者阿尔文·汉森等杰出经济学家认为世界陷入了长期经济停滞。他们认为工业革命的生机和活力已经耗尽,没有什么能取代工业革命成为维持增长的因素。

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