金融危机秘史

普林斯顿—巴尔扎克在名著《幻灭》结尾中阐释了“官方历史”——其中“全是谎言”和“秘史”——即真实的历史之间的差别。长期——甚至永远混淆历史的阴暗事实在过去是常有的事。但今时不同以往。

关于这一点,没有比全球金融危机更能说明问题的了。在官方历史中,美联储、欧洲央行和其他主要央行采取了联合行动力挽狂澜,救全球金融体系于将倾。但最近公布的联邦公开市场委员会(FOMC,美联储主要决策机构)2008年会议纪要表明,美联储通过危机事实上成了世界央行,并且主要为美国利益服务。

最重要的会议召开于9月16日和10月28日——即美国投资银行雷曼兄弟倒闭后——主要议题是建立双边货币互换安排以确保充足的流动性。美联储扩大了用外国央行货币换取美元信用的规模,其中外国央行同意在规定时期后以相同汇率购回本币加上利息。这一安排给了多国央行——特别是欧洲的央行,由于美国投资者的逃离,它们面临着美元短缺——所需要的美元贷给苦苦挣扎的国内金融机构。

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