Die harte Linie der Türkei

JERUSALEM – Die jüngste Welle türkischer Militäraktionen gegen die Kurden im Nordirak ist ein Zeichen dafür, dass die türkische Außenpolitik zwar etwas überraschend – aber nicht gänzlich unabsehbar – in weniger als zwei Jahren eine 180-Grad-Wende vollführt hat. Außerdem ist die türkische Offensive auch ein Hinweis darauf, dass diese Veränderungen über die gegenwärtigen Spannungen zwischen der Türkei und Israel hinausgehen, die nur eine Facette einer viel tiefer greifenden Entwicklung darstellen.

Nachdem die Europäische Union der Türkei die Tür vor der Nase zugeknallt hatte - trotz einiger umfassender Reformen im Militär- und Justizbereich durch die Gerechtigkeits- und Entwicklungspartei (AKP) -   richtete das Land seine Politik erst vor ein paar Jahren neu aus. Man wandte sich von Europa ab und widmete sich der unmittelbaren Nachbarschaft in der Region. Der neue Ansatz des türkischen Außenministers Ahmet Davutoğlu „Null Konflikte mit den Nachbarn“ verlieh dieser Neuausrichtung das strategische und theoretische Fundament.

Die Türkei schlug ein neues, beeindruckendes Kapitel in ihrer Außenpolitik auf. Es kam zu einer Annäherung an Armenien;  man schwächte seine Position gegenüber Zypern ab; versuchte den Iran in einen positiven Dialog mit dem Westen einzubinden; überzeugte Syrien, den schlummernden Grenzkonflikt zwischen den beiden Ländern zu lösen und initiierte – als krönenden Abschluss – Friedensgespräche zwischen Syrien und Israel unter türkischer Vermittlung.   

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