«Хамас» и «Фатх» на распутье

Палестинская политика приближается к поворотному моменту, за которым возврата нет. Борьба за власть между исламистским «Хамасом», с одной стороны, и палестинским президентом Махмудом Аббасом вместе с его светским/националистическим движением «Фатх», с другой стороны, усиливается – причем местами напряженность выливается в открытые вооруженные столкновения.

С момента своего основания в начале 80-х годов «Хамас» отказывался подчиняться Организации освобождения Палестины (ООП). Победа «Хамаса» на парламентских выборах в начале етого года – ознаменовавших собой переход к демократии – продемонстрировала его политическую зрелость. Впервые в палестинской истории доминирующее положение заняла религиозная партия. Но «Фатх» не смирился с поражением, в то время как «Хамас» убежден: кое-кто в составе «Фатха» согласен с израильско-американским планом по свержению правительства «Хамаса».

Аббас остается президентом Палестины, и по Основному закону он является главнокомандующим всех палестинских сил безопасности. Однако, хотя большинство официальных подразделений сил безопасности остается верным ему, за последний год «Хамас» создал альтернативную структуру безопасности, выстроенную на основе 4-тысячных «Оперативных сил». Более того, «Хамас» объявил о планах по набору еще полутора тысяч человек для службы в силах безопасности на Западном берегу, являющемся цитаделью «Фатха». За последние недели между сторонами часто происходили стычки по всему сектору Газа, что еще больше усилило напряженность.

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