Dean Rohrer

Hamas, Fatah und das palästinensische Dilemma

GAZA-STADT – Da sich die regierenden Behörden im Gazastreifen und im Westjordanland gegenseitig bekämpfen, befindet sich das palästinensische Volk mitten in einem Experiment. Im Gazastreifen, wo die Hamas regiert, hat der hohe Preis des bewaffneten Widerstands gegen Israel jegliche Versuche, den Konflikt wiederaufleben zu lassen, in Misskredit gebracht. Im von der Fatah regierten Westjordanland laufen die Verhandlungen ins Nichts. Keine der beiden Möglichkeiten, die der palästinensischen Politik offenstehen – Widerstand oder Verhandeln –, gibt Grund zu der Hoffnung, dass die Unabhängigkeit erreicht werden könnte. Und somit stehen die Palästinenser vor ihrer schwierigsten Herausforderung seit 1948.

Israelische Androhungen, den Krieg gegen die Hamas im Gazastreifen wiederaufzunehmen, werden äußerst ernst genommen. Die Szenen der Zerstörung sind in den Straßen und Vierteln von Gaza noch sehr lebendig, und die Hamas vermeidet das Risiko, Israel zu einem neuen Krieg zu provozieren. Die Kämpfe haben die Hamas zwei Spitzenmänner gekostet, Said Siam und Nizar Rayan, und ihre militärische Kapazität bedeutend geschwächt. Erst in jüngster Zeit wurde diese wieder aufgebaut.

Die Hamas befindet sich in einer schwierigen Position, da ihre Strategie neben Politik auch einen starken Widerstand fordert. Doch ist diese Strategie fehlgeschlagen. Die Hamas hat sämtliche Widerstandsgruppen in Gaza unter Druck gesetzt, von einer Provokation Israels abzusehen. In einer bislang beispiellosen Erklärung sagte Mahmud az-Zahar, einer der Köpfe der Hamas, sämtliche Raketengeschosse, die von Gaza auf Israel abgefeuert würden, seien „Verräterraketen“.

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