拥抱技术官僚

发自哥本哈根——假设中的欧盟“民主赤字”问题是否正借主权债务危机之机向各成员国扩散?至少在表面上,希腊和意大利国内非民选技术官僚在政治上的日益崛起已经暗示着:那条多年以来的禁忌——不能让技术官僚政府在政治议程上唯欧盟马首是瞻——已经被打破了。

在意大利,曾三度担任总理的希尔维奥·贝卢斯科尼终于被一位出色的技术官僚,前欧盟委员会委员,著名经济学家马里奥·蒙蒂所取代,这让所有意大利人都松了一口气。而希腊在经历了前任政府辞职之后也转向了卢卡斯·巴帕德莫斯——这也是一位非民选,据说对政治也不太热心的技术官僚,曾任欧洲央行副行长。

当前的欧盟无疑存在诸多问题,但所谓“民主赤字”的日益扩散并不包括在内。这一赤字观念只不过是某种容易被政治借用的有意误导。其实包括普林斯顿大学政治学教授安德鲁·莫拉夫契克(Andrew Moravcsik)在内的学者都一直强调,欧盟的合法性并非来自选举,而是源自其为欧洲人民传递切实利益的能力。而欧盟通过统一市场——甚至取消护照管制——所取得的成就也突出了这种“委托民主”的优点。

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