Hacken für die Menschheit

CAMBRIDGE – „Das Leben imitiert die Kunst viel mehr, als die Kunst das Leben imitiert“ lautet ein berühmter Ausspruch von Oscar Wilde. Im Fall des Sony-Pictures-Films The Interview war die Welt mit einer Fortsetzung dessen konfrontiert: Leben, das Kunst imitiert, die Leben imitiert. Der Filmstart löste internationale Intrigen, Dramen und finstere weltpolitische Machtkämpfe aus. Sogar der US-Präsident äußerte sich dazu in einer Ansprache – und dies alles wegen eines simplen Hacking-Falles.

Das Hacken von Informationssystemen ist kein neues Phänomen, es ging Hand in Hand mit der Einführung der Telekommunikation. Einer der ersten Angriffe richtete sich gegen Guglielmo Marconis Vorführung einer Radioübertragung im Jahr 1903, als er über fast 500 Kilometer zwischen Cornwall und London kommunizierte. Dem Kleinbühnenmagier und Möchtegern-Radio-Tycoon Nevil Maskelyne, der sich über die Patente des Italieners ärgerte, gelang es, Kontrolle über das System zu bekommen und obszöne Botschaften an die schockierten Zuhörer der Royal Institution zu senden.

Obwohl das Hacken bis auf die Ursprünge der drahtlosen Kommunikation zurück geht, hat sich seit Marconis Zeiten viel verändert. Heute ist unser Planet völlig in Informationsnetzwerke eingehüllt, die in Echtzeit enorme Datenmengen sammeln und übertragen. Sie ermöglichen viele alltägliche Aktivitäten: unmittelbare Kommunikation, soziale Medien, Finanztransaktionen oder Logistiksteuerung. Das Wichtigste dabei ist, dass Informationen nicht länger in einem abgeschlossenen Raum isoliert sind, sondern unseren ganzen Lebensraum durchdringen. Die physischen, biologischen und digitalen Welten überlagern sich immer mehr – hin zu dem, was Wissenschaftler als „cyber-physische Systeme“ bezeichnen.

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