Karim Sahibafp/ Stringer/ Getty Images

Il Dividendo “Expat” degli Stati del Golfo

PARIGI – In Medio Oriente i politici degli Stati del Golfo come dovrebbero gestire l’ampia forza lavoro di espatriati dei loro paesi? In Arabia Saudita, gli stranieri rappresentano circa un terzo della popolazione. In Qatar e negli Emirati Arabi Uniti, nove su dieci residenti sono espatriati. I governi di questi paesi dovrebbero continuare ad investire massicciamente nello sviluppo di forze lavoro autoctone, con lo scopo di diminuire la dipendenza dai lavoratori stranieri?

La percentuale straordinariamente elevata di manodopera straniera all’interno dei paesi del Consiglio di Cooperazione del Golfo (GCC) è spesso considerata un problema, perché, per come pensano alcuni, costituisce una minaccia per le culture locali e le identità nazionali, tiene bassi i salari, e impedisce lo sviluppo di competenze e talenti interni. Con così tanti mestieri e professioni dominati dal lavoro estero relativamente poco costoso, alla popolazione indigena spesso rimangono pochi settori professionali con offerta di stipendi competitivi. Questi tendono ad essere prevalentemente nel settore pubblico, in cui vengono utilizzati i proventi del petrolio per mantenere retribuzioni elevate e condizioni di lavoro attraenti.

Ma una dimensione importante del dibattito politico all’interno della regione rischia di essere trascurata: le vaste comunità di stranieri negli Stati del Golfo non sono solo di lavoratori; sono anche di consumatori. Accrescendo la popolazione dei paesi in cui vivono, i lavoratori espatriati contribuiscono a stimolare la crescita economica.

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