Culpabilité des démocraties

LONDON – En voyant l’ancien président tchèque Václav Havel se rendre à l’ambassade chinoise de Prague pour demander la libération de l’écrivain Liu Xiaobo, j’ai eu comme un sentiment de déjà vu. Il y a trente-trois ans, un autre manifeste historique immortalisait les idéaux de tous les dissidents pris dans les mailles du Rideau de fer – et de bien d’autres – la Charte 77. Havel en était l’un des initiateurs.

Et cette entreprise avait valu à Havel une lourde peine de prison. Aujourd’hui, c’est Liu que l’on condamne à 11 ans de prison, et la charge retenue contre lui est sensiblement la même: on l’accuse d’être l’un des auteurs de la Charte 08, un programme des plus courageux, proposant de combattre pacifiquement pour une Chine libre.

On dit de l’histoire qu’elle se répète. D’abord comme tragédie, puis comme farce. Il est risible en effet de voir le gouvernement chinois déployer, pour étouffer tout désir de liberté, autant de brutalité que les communistes de l’ère soviétique. L’inculpation absurde dont Liu fait l’objet – tentative de subversion contre l’Etat – est typique des sociétés fermées du système communiste du vingtième siècle, dans lesquelles l’Etat assénait son pouvoir absolu pour juger chacune des pensées et chacun des penseurs.

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