一个佛教经济体的发展问题

发自纽约——我最近去了不丹,一个坐落于喜马拉雅上脚下,拥有绝美自然风光,丰富文化内涵以及振奋人心的反省精神的王国。而它的独特性则引出了一系列全世界都感兴趣的经济和社会课题。

不丹是一个山地国家,因此也孕育了吃苦耐劳的农牧民众,并拥有着深厚的藏传佛教文化。人口稀少——国土面积近似于法国,却只居住了70万人——村落都选址在深谷当中,还有一部分牧民在高山上放牧。每一个山谷都由一个“德崇”(城堡)来守卫着,“德崇”里有佛塔和寺庙,年代久远,而且每一座建筑都是高超建筑手段和精美艺术的完美结晶。

不丹的农业经济和宗教生活一直维持着一种自给自足,贫穷且与世隔绝的状态,直到近几十年来数位杰出的君主开始带领国家走向技术现代化(公路,电力,现代医疗卫生服务和教育),国际贸易(尤其是与邻国印度)以及政治民主,情况才有所改观。不可思议的则是不丹在推行这一系列变革时所采用的思维方式,而佛教思维又是如何引导这种思维方式的。不丹正在用每一个人都应该自问的问题扪心自问:经济现代化如何才能跟深厚文化和社会幸福结合在一起?

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