EU flag ripped Laure P/Flickr

Europe et anti-Europe

BERLIN – Depuis 2008, année d’apparition de la crise financière mondiale, l’Union européenne est confrontée à une succession de crises : escalade de la crise grecque, revanchisme russe en Ukraine, et crise des réfugiés en Méditerranée (laquelle est inextricablement liée au chaos régional du Moyen-Orient et aux différentes guerres d’Afrique). Ces crises ont poussé les pouvoirs et institutions de l’UE jusque dans leurs derniers retranchements, voire au-delà de leurs limites, et c’est pourquoi la réaction de l’Europe s’est révélée si dramatiquement fébrile.

L’inefficacité des institutions et structures existantes du continent face aux menaces du monde actuel vient aujourd’hui mettre en péril la légitimité de l’UE, dans la mesure où les citoyens européens aspirent à des solutions que l’UE est manifestement incapable de fournir, et en partie réticente à produire. En résulte une érosion du soutien à l’UE de la part de l’électorat des États membres.

Le rythme de cette érosion pourrait par ailleurs s’accélérer au cours des deux prochaines années. Il apparaît désormais quasiment certain que le Royaume-Uni organisera d’ici 2016 un référendum sur le maintien de son appartenance à l’UE, tandis qu’un parti d’extrême-gauche – déterminé comme en Grèce à échapper à la rigueur des réformes économiques – pourrait bien remporter les élections législatives d’Espagne cet automne.

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