Ein grünes Inlandsprodukt?

SANTIAGO – Auf dem spektakulär erfolglosen Rio+20-Gipfel der Vereinten Nationen im Juni ging es immer wieder darum, dass wir unsere Maßstäbe für Wohlstand ändern müssen. Viele meinen, wir müssten unsere “Besessenheit” vom Bruttoinlandsprodukt ablegen und es durch einen neuen “grünen” Indikator ersetzen. Dies könnte allerdings ein schwerer Fehler sein.

Das BIP ist tatsächlich nur eine Meßgröße für den Marktwert aller Güter und Dienstleistungen. So klingt es nach einem guten Indikator für Wohlstand, aber wie oft bemerkt wurde, bezieht es Dinge mit ein, die uns nicht reicher machen, und lässt Dinge außen vor, die dies tun.

Wenn Menschen beispielsweise für durch Verschmutzung verursachte Nachteile nicht entschädigt werden, werden diese nachteiligen Effekte nicht im BIP erfasst. Bezahlen wir für die Beseitigung von Verschmutzung, steigert dies das BIP, trägt aber nicht zum Wohlstand bei. Wenn auf der anderen Seite Schmutzwasser auf natürliche Weise in Feuchtgebieten gereinigt wird, entsteht wirtschaftlicher Wert, der aber, da keine Transaktion stattfand, nicht in das BIP einbezogen wird.

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