Zelený domácí produkt?

SANTIAGO – Jedním ze stále se navracejících témat na křiklavě neúspěšném červnovém summitu Organizace spojených národů Rio+20 byla potřeba změnit způsob, jímž měříme bohatství. Mnozí lidé tvrdí, že musíme odhodit naši „posedlost“ hrubým domácím produktem a vyvinout nový, „zelený“ účetní standard, který ho nahradí. Ve skutečnosti by takový krok mohl být vážnou chybou.

HDP je v podstatě jen vyjádření tržní hodnoty veškerého zboží a služeb. Na první pohled to vypadá jako dobrý ukazatel bohatství, ale jak se často uvádí, zahrnuje i věci, které nezvyšují naše bohatství, a vynechává ty, které to dělají.

Nejsou-li například lidé odškodněni za újmu způsobenou znečištěním ovzduší, nebudou jeho nepříznivé důsledky zahrnuty do HDP. Zaplatíme-li za vyčištění vzduchu, zvýší se tím HDP, ale žádné bohatství se nevytvoří. Stejně tak vzniká ekonomická hodnota, pokud se odpadní voda přirozeně vyčistí v mokřadech, ale protože přitom nedochází k žádné transakci, není to v HDP započítáno.

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