Iran fintech startup Scott Peterson/Getty Images

Verdir la finance numérique

BEIJING – La finance numérique s’est révélée être un outil révolutionnaire inattendu, par le simple fait qu’elle permet une inclusion financière à bas coûts. Grâce aux nouvelles technologies financières (regroupées sous le terme Fintech), les consommateurs peuvent facilement faire leurs achats, les immigrants peuvent à moindre frais envoyer l’argent durement gagné à leurs familles et les épargnants peuvent par eux-mêmes définir les investissements en vue de leur avenir. Mais pour que la Fintech réalise son potentiel d’avancement du bien public mondial, un autre facteur doit être pris en compte : l’environnement.

Le Programme des Nations unies pour l’environnement (PNUE) a récemment publié un rapport, Fintech and Sustainable Development : Assessing the Implications, (La Fintech et le développement durable : Évaluer les conséquences) qui explore les manières dont la finance numérique peut être utilisée pour dégager des avantages environnementaux. Comme le souligne ce rapport, en réduisant les coûts et en améliorant l’efficacité, la Fintech mobilise déjà la finance verte, permettant aux plus pauvres d’avoir accès à des

sources d’énergie propre grâce à des systèmes de paiement novateurs et en facilitant l’épargne verte, pour les riches comme pour les pauvres.
La start-up suédoise Trine, par exemple, permet aux épargnants de Stockholm de financer des installations d’énergie solaire situées à plusieurs milliers de kilomètres de là. Au Kenya, l’entreprise M-KOPA Solar tire parti de l’énorme succès du service national de paiement par téléphone portable M-Pesa pour proposer des kits solaires aux communautés les plus démunies du pays. D’autres initiatives illustrent le potentiel écologique des blockchains et des crypto-monnaies.

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