Enseñanzas griegas para la economía mundial

CAMBRIDGE – El plan de ayuda de 140.000 millones de dólares que el Gobierno griego ha recibido al final de sus socios de la Unión Europea y del Fondo Monetario Internacional le da el respiro necesario para emprender la difícil tarea de poner en orden sus finanzas. El plan puede o no prevenir que España y Portugal acaben tan gravemente afectados o incluso evitar, de hecho, una posible quiebra griega. Sea cual fuere el resultado, está claro que el desastre griego ha dejado un ojo morado a la UE.

En el sentido más profundo, la crisis es otra manifestación de lo que yo llamo “el trilema de la economía mundial”; la mundialización económica, la democracia política y el Estado-nación son mutuamente irreconciliables. Podemos tener, como máximo, dos a la vez. La democracia es compatible con la soberanía nacional sólo  si limitamos la mundialización. Si intensificamos la mundialización, al tiempo que conservamos el Estado-nación, debemos abandonar la democracia y, si queremos democracia junto con la mundialización, debemos dejar de lado el Estado-nación y luchar por un mayor gobierno internacional.

La historia de la economía mundial muestra el trilema en pleno desarrollo. La primera era de la mundialización, que duró hasta 1914, fue un éxito mientras las políticas económicas y monetarias permanecieron aisladas de las presiones políticas internas. Entonces dichas políticas podían estar enteramente sometidas a las exigencias del patrón-oro y la libre movilidad de los capitales, pero, una vez que aumentó el derecho de voto, la clase obrera se organizó y la política de masas pasó a ser la norma, los objetivos económicos nacionales empezaron a competir con las normas y limitaciones exteriores y a arrollarlas.

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