La reforma de la reforma griega

PRINCETON – El nuevo Gobierno de Grecia, encabezado por el partido Syriza, que se opone a la austeridad, representa para la zona del euro una amenaza que hasta ahora no había tenido que afrontar: la de tratar con funcionarios nacionales que están fuera de la principal corriente tradicional europea. Syriza es en muchos sentidos un partido radical y con frecuencia se califican sus ideas sobre la política económica de propias de la extrema izquierda, pero su posición sobre la deuda y la austeridad cuenta con el apoyo de muchos economistas totalmente ortodoxos de Europa y los Estados Unidos. Entonces, ¿qué es lo que diferencia a Syriza?

Todas las negociaciones entre deudores y acreedores entrañan en alguna medida actitudes faroleras y bravuconas, pero el rebelde ministro de Hacienda de Grecia, Yanis Varoufakis, ha planteado con audacia su posición ante los medios de comunicación y el público de un modo que deja pocas dudas sobre su disposición a jugar fuerte.

Sería de esperar que las negociaciones entre los griegos y la “troika” (la Comisión Europea, el Banco Central Europeo y el Fondo Monetario Internacional) versarían principalmente sobre la consecución de un acuerdo relativo a los aspectos económicos de la situación, pero eso sería hacerse ilusiones. Los alemanes, junto con los países acreedores más pequeños, no están dispuestos a relajación alguna de la austeridad y se muestran inflexibles respecto de que la “reforma estructural” deba seguir siendo una condición para una nueva financiación. Consideran que ofrecer unas condiciones más fáciles sería económicamente contraproducente, entre otras cosas porque brindaría una oportunidad a los griegos de volver a las andadas.

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