tsipras merkel Zhang Fan/ZumaPress

Crise grecque : l’indispensable retour du sens politique

NEW YORK – Les situations de crise de la dette souveraine, telles que le contexte grec actuel, ne peuvent être résolues qu’à condition de mesures courageuses de la part du débiteur comme du créancier. D’une part, le débiteur doit pouvoir bénéficier d’un nouveau départ grâce au rééchelonnement de sa dette, qu’il appartient d’autre part au créancier de faciliter, sans pour autant encourager les mauvais comportements. Pour qu’un accord émerge, les besoins de chaque camp doivent être considérés. C’est pourquoi réformes sérieuses et allégement significatif de la dette doivent s’opérer de concert. Et c’est la raison pour laquelle la Grèce et l’Allemagne, son plus important créancier, ont besoin d’un nouveau modus vivendi s’ils entendent reprendre les négociations.

Il incombe tout d’abord au gouvernement grec de faire preuve de clarté quant à la nécessité urgente de réformes économiques. Non seulement l’économie du pays s’effondre-t-elle, mais elle se révèle également structurellement inefficace. Les racines du malheur grec prennent corps bien plus profondément que dans l’austérité des dernières années.

À titre d’illustration, en 2013, les innovateurs résidant en Allemagne déposaient quelque 917 demandes de brevet pour chaque million d’habitants. Par opposition, les inventeurs basés en Grèce n’en déposaient cette année-là que 69 par million d’habitants.

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