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La Guerre de Sécession en Europe

WASHINGTON, DC – Les négociations qui ont conduit à la dernière entente de principe sur la dette de la Grèce ont mis en relief deux visions concurrentes de l'Union européenne : l'union souple, humaine et politique soutenue par la France, et l'union légaliste et centrée sur l'économie, soutenue par l'Allemagne. Comme le dit François Heisbourg dans son récent article : « En contemplant ouvertement la sécession forcée de la Grèce [hors de la zone euro], l'Allemagne a démontré que l'économie l'emporte sur les considérations politiques et stratégiques. La France voit les choses différemment. » La question est maintenant de savoir quelle vision va l'emporter.

Les Grecs, quant à eux, placent leur identité nationale avant leur portefeuille, d'une manière que les économistes ne comprennent pas et ne parviennent pas toujours à prévoir. Il est économiquement irrationnel que les Grecs préfèrent rester membres de la zone euro, alors qu'ils pourraient rester dans l'UE avec une monnaie nationale restaurée qu'ils pourraient dévaluer.

Mais pour les Grecs, l'adhésion à la zone euro ne signifie pas seulement qu'ils peuvent utiliser la monnaie commune. Cela met leur pays sur un pied d'égalité avec l'Italie, l'Espagne, la France et l'Allemagne, comme « un membre à part entière » de l'Europe : une position cohérente avec la position de la Grèce comme berceau de la civilisation occidentale.

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