Greek soup kitchen Aristidis Vafeiadakis/ZumaPress

Grecia, adicta a la ayuda

NUEVA YORK – La prolongada saga de la deuda griega es trágica por muchas razones, de las que no es menor el hecho de que la relación del país con sus acreedores tiene semejanzas con la que hay entre el mundo en desarrollo y los donantes internacionales. La sucesión de rescates para Grecia exhibe muchas de las patologías que han dominado por décadas los programas de desarrollo; esto incluye consecuencias políticas duraderas, que ni los mercados financieros ni el pueblo griego terminan de comprender.

Igual que en otros programas de ayuda, se ha transferido el equivalente a cientos de miles de millones de dólares de economías más ricas a una mucho más pobre, con consecuencias negativas imprevistas. El programa de rescate ideado para evitar un colapso que sacara a Grecia de la eurozona elevó el cociente deuda/PIB del país de 130% al inicio de la crisis en 2009 a más de 170% hoy, y el Fondo Monetario Internacional predice que la carga de la deuda puede llegar al 200% del PIB en los próximos dos años. Esta espiral de deuda descontrolada amenaza con amesetar la trayectoria de crecimiento del país y empeorar las perspectivas de empleo.

Como otros receptores de ayuda, Grecia se trabó en una relación de codependencia con sus acreedores, que la ayudan con reducciones de deuda de facto, por medio de préstamos subsidiados y diferimientos de pagos de intereses. Nadie en su sano juicio espera que Grecia pueda algún día cancelar sus deudas; por el contrario, el país cayó en un ciclo aparentemente interminable de pagos y rescates, de tal modo que depende de los donantes para su supervivencia misma.

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