Greek soup kitchen Aristidis Vafeiadakis/ZumaPress

La dépendance à l’aide de la Grèce

NEW YORK – La saga de la dette grecque qui continue est tragique pour de nombreuses raisons, entre autres parce que la relation du pays avec ses créanciers rappelle celle entre le monde en développement et l'industrie de l'aide. En effet, la succession des plans de sauvetage en faveur de la Grèce renferme beaucoup des pathologies qui ont affecté l’agenda de développement depuis des décennies – y compris les conséquences politiques de long terme que, ni les marchés financiers, ni le peuple grec, n’ont réalisé jusqu'à présent.

Comme dans le cas d’autres programmes d'aide, l'équivalent de centaines de milliards de dollars a été transféré depuis des économies plus riches vers un pays beaucoup plus pauvre, avec des conséquences négatives, bien qu’involontaires. Le programme de sauvetage conçu pour éviter à la Grèce de sortir de la zone euro a fait augmenter le ratio dette sur PIB du pays de 130% au début de la crise en 2009 à plus de 170% aujourd'hui ; le Fonds monétaire international prédit que la charge de la dette pourrait atteindre 200% du PIB au cours des deux prochaines années. Cette spirale de la dette hors de contrôle menace de limiter fortement les possibilités de croissance du pays et d'aggraver les perspectives d'emploi.

Comme d’autres bénéficiaires d’aide, la Grèce s’est retrouvée prisonnière d’une relation de co-dépendance avec ses créanciers, qui fournissent une aide sous la forme d’un allégement de dette de facto réalisé au moyen de prêts subsidiés et de paiements d'intérêts différés. Aucune personne raisonnable ne s’attend à ce que la Grèce soit un jour en mesure de rembourser ses dettes, mais le pays est pris au piège d’un cycle apparemment sans fin de paiements et de plans de sauvetage – le rendant dépendant de ses bailleurs de fonds pour sa survie même.

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