Greek soup kitchen Aristidis Vafeiadakis/ZumaPress

希腊的援助瘾

纽约—没完没了的希腊债务神话是一场悲剧,原因有很多,其中之一是以下事实:希腊与其债权人的关系就像是发展中世界和援助界的关系。事实上,援助希腊的“连续剧”具备诸多几十年来充斥着发展日程的桥段——包括金融市场和希腊人民至今都没有能够抓住要领的长期政治后果。

与其他援助方案一样,价值数千亿美元的资金从较富裕经济体流向较平穷经济体,却引起了(也许是不经意的)消极后果。为了让希腊免于被踢出欧元区而设计的救援方案将希腊债务-GDP之比从2009年危机伊始时的130%增加到今天的170%以上,国际货币基金组织(IMF)预测未来两年可能达到200%。这一失控的债务螺旋有可能摧毁希腊的增长轨迹,让就业形势进一步恶化。

和其他受助国一样,希腊陷入了与其债权人的相互依存(codependent)关系,这一关系以补贴贷款和利息偿付延期为形式的事实债务纾困为形式提供援助。理性人不会认为希腊有能力偿还它的债务,但这个国家已经陷入了深不见底的偿付和援助循环——其生存需要仰仗其出资人。

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