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El otro déficit de Grecia

OAKLAND – Las finanzas públicas de Grecia llevan una década en el centro de la atención. Y en noviembre, cuando dentro del último acuerdo con sus acreedores el país enfrentó la primera revisión de avance de sus reformas (un requisito para obtener una nueva inyección de fondos de rescate), su déficit presupuestario quedó otra vez bajo la lupa.

Pero hay otro tipo de déficit que los griegos deberían examinar, uno que no llamó tanto la atención del público, pero cuyas consecuencias económicas pueden ser igualmente serias. Como el resto de la región del Mediterráneo (y de hecho, como todo el mundo), Grecia no solamente tiene un déficit fiscal; también tiene un déficit ecológico.

Según nuestro análisis, los países del Mediterráneo hoy usan 2,5 veces la cantidad de servicios y recursos naturales que sus ecosistemas pueden renovar. Por ejemplo, Grecia necesitaría los servicios y recursos ecológicos totales de tres Grecias para satisfacer la demanda de alimento, fibras, madera, vivienda, infraestructura urbana y captura del dióxido de carbono que sus ciudadanos imponen sobre la naturaleza. Atenas por sí sola le demanda a la naturaleza un 22% más de lo que los ecosistemas de todo el país pueden proveer. Y tras años de recesión en los que la presión de Grecia sobre los recursos naturales había disminuido, cierta mejora en el crecimiento del PIB trajo consigo un nuevo aumento de la demanda.

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