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Satu Lagi Defisit Yunani

OAKLAND – Selama satu dekade terakhir, banyak perhatian tertuju pada keuangan publik Yunani. Ketika, pada bulan November, Yunani menghadapi pemeriksaan pertamanya yang mengkaji kemajuan reformasi berdasarkan perjanjian terbaru dengan para kreditornya – sebuah aktivitas wajib guna memperoleh sumber pemasukan baru untuk dana talangan – lagi-lagi defisit anggaran di Yunani diawasi dengan ketat.

Tetapi masyarakat Yunani lebih baik mempersiapkan diri menghadapi bentuk defisit lain – defisit yang tidak terlalu banyak disoroti publik, namun dapat menimbulkan konsekuensi ekonomi yang sama buruknya. Sama halnya dengan negara-negara di kawasan Mediterania (dan seluruh negara), Yunani tidak hanya mengalami defisit fiskal; tapi juga defisit ekologis.

Menurut analisa kami, negara-negara Mediterania saat ini menggunakan sumber daya dan jasa ekologis 2,5 kali lebih banyak dibandingkan yang bisa diperbarui oleh ekosistem masing-masing negara. Yunani, sebagai contoh, membutuhkan sumber daya dan jasa ekologis dari tiga Yunani guna memenuhi kebutuhan warga negara dari alam atas pangan, serat, kayu, tempat tinggal, infrastruktur perkotaan, dan penyerapan karbon (carbon sequestration). Athena sendiri memerlukan 22% lebih besar dari alam dibandingkan sumber daya yang dapat disediakan oleh ekosistemnya. Setelah bertahun-tahun mengalami resesi yang memaksa penurunan sumber daya alam Yunani, kini permintaan mulai naik, karena pertumbuhan PDB sudah membaik.

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