الديمقراطية واختبار الشجاعة

برينستون ــ في المواجهة المخيفة المرهِقة للأعصاب بين اليونان والاتحاد الأوروبي، يبدو أن السلطات اليونانية تطالب بتفويض ديمقراطي يمتد إلى خارج حدود بلادها. والواقع أن الحكومة الجديدة بقيادة حزب سيريزا من أقصى اليسار تصور نفسها ليس فقط باعتبارها مفاوضاً يحاول الحصول على صفقة جيدة من أجل اليونان، بل وأيضاً بوصفها نصيراً لحل لمشكلة يفترض أنها أوروبية والتي تتمثل في الديون الحكومية المفرطة. ولكن هذا الموقف لم يدرك أن محاوري اليونان محملين بمسؤولية ديمقراطية.

ربما يكون بوسعنا أن نعتبر أن السياسة الديمقراطية تنطوي على نوعين من المهام: صياغة القوانين استناداً إلى مبادئ عامة، وإعادة توزيع الموارد عن طريق الضرائب والإنفاق الحكومي. وداخل أي دولة منفردة، تصبح هذه المهام غير معقدة نسبيا. ولكن العلاقات الدولية لأي دولة من الممكن أن تفرض قيوداً قوية على حكومتها.

وتصبح مثل هذه القيود قوية بشكل خاص عندما يكون لزاماً على الحكومة أن تعمل ضمن نظام سياسي أوسع، كما هي الحال في اليونان بحكم عضويتها في الاتحاد الأوروبي. ولكن أي عملية تكامل، سواء كانت أوروبية أو عالمية، تتطلب بعض التعديل للأفضليات والقوانين المحلية. وسوف تكون قدرة الحكومة على إعادة التوزيع أيضاً محدودة إذا تسبب تحصيل الضرائب في حمل رأس المال أو أصحاب الدخول المرتفعة على الفرار من البلاد.

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