Un new deal pour la Grèce

ATHÈNES – Trois mois de négociations menées par le gouvernement grec auprès de nos partenaires européens et internationaux ont permis de faire émerger une importante convergence autour des mesures nécessaires au franchissement de plusieurs années de crise économique, ainsi qu’à l’apparition d’une reprise durable en Grèce. Pour autant, ces négociations n’ont produit aucun véritable accord. Comment l’expliquer ? Quelles sont les étapes nécessaires à l’élaboration d’un programme de réformes viable et mutuellement convenu ?

Nos partenaires et nous-mêmes sommes d’ores et déjà en accord sur de nombreux points. Il est nécessaire que le système fiscal grec soit rénové, et que l’administration fiscale puisse être libérée de toute influence de la part des acteurs politiques et des entreprises. Le système des retraites est extrêmement mal en point. Les circuits de crédit de l’économie sont rompus. Le marché du travail est sorti dévasté de la crise, et se révèle profondément segmenté, tandis que la croissance de la productivité est au point mort. L’administration publique nécessite une modernisation urgente, les ressources publiques devant par ailleurs être utilisées plus efficacement. Un certain nombre d’obstacles considérables entravent la création de nouvelles entreprises. La concurrence sur les marchés des produits s’avère beaucoup trop restreinte. Enfin, les inégalités ont atteint des niveaux inacceptables, empêchant la société de s’unir derrière des réformes pourtant essentielles.

À l’écart de ce consensus, l’entente sur un nouveau modèle de développement pour la Grèce exige que soient surmontés deux obstacles majeurs. Tout d’abord, il nous faut nous entendre sur la manière d’approcher la consolidation budgétaire de la Grèce. Deuxièmement, nous avons besoin d’un programme de réformes complet et mutuellement convenu, permettant de sous-tendre cette consolidation, et d’inspirer confiance à la société grecque.

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