A base das alterações climáticas

PARIS – O acordo contra as alterações climáticas alcançado aqui, no dia 12 de dezembro, foi uma vitória valiosa para a diplomacia. Tanto o próprio acordo como a atmosfera de cooperação que permeou o processo representam uma mudança radical, desde a cimeira falhada de Copenhaga, em 2009. Mas embora devamos felicitar os líderes mundiais pelo seu sucesso, Paris marca o início, e não o fim, do caminho. Agora, o nosso dever coletivo é mantermos a firmeza com os nossos líderes, de forma a exigirmos e a garantirmos que eles passam das promessas à ação - em especial nas regiões mais vulneráveis do mundo, como a África.

Devemos aplaudir a China, a Índia, os Estados Unidos e a União Europeia pelas suas promessas pré-Paris sobre a ação climática. Os compromissos destes países criaram o sentimento de responsabilidade, confiança e solidariedade que permitiu a 195 nações não só a estarem de acordo sobre algo único, mas também a porem em marcha uma série de ciclos de cinco anos, cada vez mais ambiciosos, para eliminar progressivamente as emissões de gases com efeito de estufa durante este século. Este é um sinal claro de que a era do carbono atingiu um ponto de viragem; como resultado, haverá mais investimentos nas energias renováveis.

Os países também prometeram trabalhar mais para protegerem os mais vulneráveis do mundo, procurando limitar o aquecimento global médio para o baixo valor de 1,5º Celsius acima dos níveis pré-industriais. E os países desenvolvidos garantiram pelo menos 100 mil milhões de dólares em financiamento anual climático para ajudar os países menos desenvolvidos a reduzirem as suas emissões de carbono e a prepararem-se para as alterações climáticas. Pela primeira vez, um acordo internacional oferece fundos aos países menos desenvolvidos para cobrir parte da perda e danos causados pelos choques climáticos.

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