Bernie Madoff Bryan Smith/ZumaPress

Podvody, hejlové a finanční trhy

NEW HAVEN – Adam Smith psal o slavné „neviditelné ruce trhu“, tedy o teorii, podle níž prosazování zájmů jednotlivců na svobodných a konkurenčních trzích prospívá zájmu společnosti jako celku. A Smith měl pravdu: svobodné trhy přinesly jednotlivcům i společnostem nevídanou prosperitu. Protože však s námi někdo může manipulovat nebo nás podvádět, případně nás jen pasivně pokoušet, dokážou nás svobodné trhy přesvědčit i k nákupu věcí, které nejsou dobré pro nás ani pro společnost.

Tento postřeh představuje významnou doušku ke Smithově vizi. A právě jím se s Georgem Akerlofem zabýváme v naší nové knize Hon na hejly: Ekonomie manipulace a podvodu.

Většina z nás trpí „phishingem“: nevyžádanými e-maily a telefonáty od lidí, kteří nás chtějí podvést. Jako „phool“ („hejl“) se označuje člověk, který plně nechápe všudypřítomnost phishingu. Takový phool sice vidí izolované případy phishingu, ale neuvědomuje si, jaká míra profesionality za ním stojí nebo jak hluboce tato profesionalita ovlivňuje životy. Bohužel se spousta z nás stala phooly, včetně Akerlofa a mě – a právě proto jsme napsali zmíněnou knihu.

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