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再造政府

巴黎—2008年金融危机爆发以来,发达国家政府承受了巨大的压力。在许多国家,税收收入因为经济衰退、国民收入降低和房地产交易陷入停顿而大幅减少。税收收入的下降在大多数情况下是突然、深度且持续的。政府别无选择,只能增税或适应不景气。

在一些国家,冲击程度非常巨大,以至于大幅增税也无法弥补缺口。在西班牙,尽管2010年以来增税幅度超过了GDP的4%,但2014年税收-GDP之比只有38%,而2007年为41%。在希腊,某些时候增税幅度高达GDP的13%,但税收比只增加了六个百分点。在其他国家,增税的政治上限在足以弥补缺口之前就已经达到。不管是否愿意,削减支出正在成为重点。

未来增长的幻灭增加了这一压力。过去几年来,生产率记录总体而言十分疲软,这表明未来多年内的增长将慢于此前的预期。因此,收入增长看起来无法足以赶上年龄导致的医疗和退休金公共支出的激增。

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