construction site Harm Rhebergen/Flickr

La buena gobernanza en el atolladero

ROMA – El desarrollo y las mejoras en la gobernanza han tendido a ir mano a mano. Pero, contrariamente a la creencia popular, existe poca evidencia que pruebe que el éxito en la implementación de reformas a la gobernanza lleve a un desarrollo económico y social más rápido e inclusivo. De hecho, puede que ocurra todo lo contrario.

El enfoque en la buena gobernanza se deriva de la lucha por restablecer el crecimiento sostenido durante las crisis de  la deuda de la década de 1980 en los países en desarrollo. En lugar de replantear el abordaje de políticas económicas imperantes, las instituciones internacionales de desarrollo apuntaron hacia blancos fáciles: los gobiernos de países en desarrollo. El asesoramiento a los gobiernos acerca de cómo realizar su trabajo se convirtió en la nueva vocación de dichas instituciones, las cuales rápidamente desarrollaron nuevos abordajes “técnicos” dirigidos a la reforma de la gobernanza.

El Banco Mundial, haciendo uso de más de 100 indicadores, presentó un índice compuesto de buena gobernanza, que se basa en la percepción de representatividad y responsabilidad con respecto a la rendición de cuentas, la estabilidad política y la ausencia de violencia, la efectividad gubernamental, la calidad de las normativas, el imperio de la ley, y los niveles de corrupción. Al afirmar que había encontrado una fuerte correlación entre sus indicadores de gobernanza y el desempeño económico, el Banco avivó esperanzas sobre que se había encontrado el factor clave para lograr el progreso económico.

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