World Trade Center pre-9/11 Wally Gobetz/Flickr

Retrouver l’espoir d’hier

WASHINGTON, DC – L'année 2015 a été difficile, ponctuée par la baisse des prévisions de croissance, des attaques terroristes horribles, des flux massifs de réfugiés et de graves défis politiques qu’entraîne la montée du populisme dans de nombreux pays. Au Moyen-Orient, en particulier, chaos et violence ont continué à proliférer, avec des conséquences dévastatrices. Cela représente un virage décevant par rapport au monde sans doute imparfait, mais avec beaucoup plus d'espoir, d'il y a quelques décennies.

Dans son autobiographie, Le Monde d'hier, Stefan Zweig décrit un changement drastique similaire. Né en 1881 à Vienne, Zweig a passé sa jeunesse dans un environnement optimiste, civil et tolérant. Puis, à partir de 1914, il a été témoin de l'effondrement de l'Europe dans la Première Guerre mondiale, suivie par des convulsions révolutionnaires, la Grande Dépression, la montée du stalinisme, et enfin la barbarie du nazisme et le déclenchement de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Dévasté, Zweig s’est suicidé en exil en 1942.

On imagine que Zweig aurait été réconforté par la création, après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, de l'Organisation des Nations Unies et du système de Bretton Woods, sans parler des décennies suivantes de reconstruction et de réconciliation. Il aurait pu assister à la coopération et aux progrès qui ont marqué l'ère d’après-guerre. Peut-être, alors, il aurait regardé la période 1914-1945 comme un détour, terrible mais limité, dans la marche du monde vers la paix et la prospérité.

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