Abschied von Alleingängen

Gewiss ist eine zentrale Lehre, die der oder die nächste amerikanische Präsident/in aus den Erfahrungen der Regierung Bush ziehen wird, dass Multilateralismus wichtig ist. Die Vorstellungen von amerikanischer Vorherrschaft und unilateralen Antworten sind wenig sinnvoll, wenn die meisten bedeutenden Herausforderungen, vor denen die einzelnen Länder heute stehen – Probleme wie der Klimawandel, Pandemien, finanzielle Stabilität und Terrorismus – sich außerhalb der Kontrolle selbst der größten Länder befinden. Für all diese Probleme ist eine multilaterale Zusammenarbeit notwendig.

Die Vereinten Nationen können eine wichtige unterstützende Rolle bei der Legitimation und Umsetzung von Abkommen zwischen Ländern spielen, doch selbst die engsten Freunde der UNO geben zu, dass ihre enorme Größe, die unbeweglichen regionalen Blöcke, formalen diplomatischen Prozeduren und ihre lästige Bürokratie häufig einen Konsens verhindern. Ein Experte drückte dies mit den Worten aus, das Problem der multilateralen Organisationen bestehe darin, „wie man alle in den Handel einbezieht und trotzdem noch handelt.“

Eine Antwort ist, die UNO durch informelle beratende Organisationen auf regionaler und globaler Ebene zu ergänzen. Während der Finanzkrisen nach den Ölschocks der 1970er Jahre lud die französische Regierung die Spitzenpolitiker der fünf führenden Wirtschaftsnationen ein, um ihre Politik zu besprechen und abzustimmen. Die Idee war, das Treffen klein und informell zu halten, indem man die Teilnehmer auf die Anzahl beschränkte, die in die Bibliothek von Schloss Rambouillet passen würde.

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