与单独行事说再见

下一任美国总统能够从布什政府经历中所汲取的关键教训无疑是多边主义的重要性。即使世界上最大的国家也无法控制今天气候变化、传染疾病、金融稳定和恐怖主义等多数严重挑战,因此美国迷恋霸权和单边响应并没有多少实际意义。解决所有的问题都需要进行多边合作。

联合国在合法化并执行国家间协议的过程中发挥重要的作用,但即使是它最亲密的朋友也不得不承认:联合国庞大的规模、僵化的地区团体、正式的外交程序和麻烦的官僚队伍在很多情况下会阻碍共识的达成。正如圣人所说,多边组织的问题在于“如何在让所有人都参与进来的情况下仍能采取行动。”

一个答案是在地区和全球范围内建立非正式的顾问机构对联合国进行补充。举例来讲,在20世纪70年代石油振荡之后的金融危机中,在法国政府主持下,五大经济体的领导人共同对政策进行探讨和协调。法国政府的想法是把与会者人数限制在拉姆伯伊利的乡间别墅图书馆能够容纳的范围之内,从而确保会议在小范围和非正式的氛围中进行。

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