Matt Wuerker

Adieu à la « mondialisation »

FLORENCE – L’emploi du terme « mondialisation » s’est généralisé à partir des années 1990, pour atteindre un pic de popularité en 2000 et 2001. Le mot « mondialisation » apparaît par exemple plus de 3500 fois dans les colonnes du journal Le Monde en 2001. Mais ce chiffre décline ensuite régulièrement et en 2006 déjà, sa fréquence d’apparition a baissé de plus de 80 pour cent. Depuis l’émergence de la crise financière en 2007, son utilisation par les principaux quotidiens comme le New York Times et le Financial Times devient encore moins répandue. La mondialisation est en perte de vitesse.

Une brève histoire de ce concept, et une comparaison avec un autre terme ayant également perdu de son intérêt en raison d’un usage abusif, contribuent à expliquer ce processus.

Les deux plus importantes innovations conceptuelles du XXe siècle, le totalitarisme et la mondialisation, sont d’origine italienne. Le premier terme définit le milieu tumultueux de ce siècle, le deuxième sa fin indolore. Le totalitarisme s’est finalement désintégré en 1989, et la mondialisation a pris le dessus.

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