Capitalismo bueno, capitalismo malo

Cuando cayó el muro de Berlín en 1989, mucha gente supuso que el “capitalismo” había ganado la guerra fría ideológica y el “comunismo” había perdido. Pero, si bien el “capitalismo” –definido como un sistema económico basado en la propiedad privada—claramente ha prevalecido, hay muchas diferencias entre los cerca de 200 países que actualmente lo practican de alguna forma.

Es útil dividir a las economías capitalistas en cuatro categorías amplias. Si bien muchas economías caen en varias de ellas, la mayoría se puede clasificar principalmente en una de las categorías. La siguiente tipología ayuda a explicar por qué algunas economías crecen más rápido que otras.

El capitalismo oligárquico existe cuando el poder y el dinero están muy concentrados en unas cuantas personas. Es la peor forma de capitalismo, no sólo por la desigualdad extrema de ingresos y riqueza que esas economías toleran, sino también porque las élites no promueven el crecimiento como objetivo central de la política económica. En cambio, los oligarcas fijan las reglas para maximizar sus ingresos y riqueza propios. Este es el sistema que prevalece en gran parte de América Latina, el Medio Oriente árabe y África.

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