Guter Kapitalismus, schlechter Kapitalismus

Nach dem Fall der Berliner Mauer im Jahr 1989 ging man vielerorts davon aus, dass der „Kapitalismus“ den Kalten Krieg der Ideologien gewonnen und der „Kommunismus“ verloren hatte. Aber obwohl der „Kapitalismus“ – definiert als ein auf Privateigentum basierendes Wirtschaftssystem –  klar die Oberhand behielt, gibt es in den beinahe 200 Ländern, die ihn heute in irgendeiner Form praktizieren, zahlreiche Unterschiede.

In unseren Augen ist es sinnvoll, die kapitalistischen Ökonomien in vier weit gefasste Kategorien einzuteilen. Obwohl viele dieser Ökonomien Elemente mehrerer Kategorien aufweisen, fallen die meisten jedoch hauptsächlich in eine dieser Gruppen. Die folgende Typologie trägt zur Erklärung bei, warum manche Ökonomien schneller wachsen als andere.

Der oligarchische Kapitalismus herrscht dort vor, wo Macht und Geld auf wenige konzentriert sind. Dabei handelt es sich um die schlimmste Form des Kapitalismus und zwar nicht nur aufgrund der extremen Ungleichheiten hinsichtlich Einkommen und Reichtum, die eine derartige Wirtschaft toleriert, sondern auch, weil die Eliten Wachstum nicht als das oberste Ziel der Wirtschaftspolitik betrachten.  Stattdessen legen die Oligarchen die Regeln fest, um ihr eigenes Einkommen und ihren Reichtum zu maximieren. Derartige Strukturen herrschen in großen Teilen Lateinamerikas vor, im arabischen Nahen Osten und in Afrika.

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