Хороший и плохой капитализм

ПАРИЖ – Действительность рыночного обмена – прямых сделок между торговцами и клиентами – возникла постепенно 3000 или 4000 лет назад. В этих новых социальных отношениях клиент мог купить все, что хотел, когда хотел и у кого хотел, часто торгуясь с продавцом о цене.

Из-за этих особенностей свободный рынок является частью основных свобод, которые укоренились в повседневной жизни. Он все еще господствует в настоящее время, поскольку все попытки создать альтернативу, даже тоталитаризм, провалились. Действительно, прошло 20 лет с тех пор, как бывшие коммунистические страны Восточной Европы вступили в мир рыночного обмена – шаг, который уже был сделан в 1946 году социал-демократами во всем мире.

В течение нескольких тысяч лет свободный рынок состоял из отдельных людей: мастеров, торговцев и потребителей. Капитализм, когда он появился триста лет назад, был всего лишь тем же самым видом деятельности в более крупном масштабе. Благодаря паровым двигателям и электричеству большее количество людей получили возможность работать вместе, а корпорации смогли привлечь большое количество небольших вкладчиков, которые стали капиталистами.

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